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Continuous. Autonomous. Over-the-air monitoring.

Resting Heart Rate
& Breathing Rate.

Respiration Rate:

As people breath naturally, the chest (lung) as well as part of the abdominal region moves “up and down”. This movement is captured in real time by analyzing 15 million impulse signatures per second in a given space.

Resting Heart Rate:

The largest motion from inside the body is created by the heart as it pumps blood throughout the body in a harmonious rhythm. Xandar Kardian “locks in” to this movement frequency within 5-20 seconds in order to obtain accurate heart beat patterns while the body is in still (resting) position.

RHR + RR + Motion Monitoring

97% accuracy as compared to ECG (gold standard)

HIPAA compliant data management
(in partnership with Medstack)
ISO 13485:2016 Manufacturing
FDA 510(k) cleared Class II Medical Device (Q2, 2021)
FCC / CE certified


Vital-sign Monitoring

Personal Office

Employee / Occupant wellness monitoring to obtain stress or fatigue levels. Automatically adjust lighting + HVAC + temperature + fresh air intake based on physiological status.

Any room

Guest's wellness monitoring in residences, long term care nursing home facilities, correctional facilities, general ward & behavioural monitoring rooms in hospitals.

Any furniture

Monitor patients (hospital) from the waiting room via designated chairs or beds. Detect elevated RHR for security purposes in law enforcement.

& High Accuracy.

Measurement of vital physiological parameters, including respiration rate and resting heart rate can provide key potential markers for early deterioration. It is equally important that accurate measurement is conducted with proper equipment and medical guidance. Respiration rate for example is best measured with the gold-standard chest straps. Certain wearable devices “estimate” RR (respiration rate) by obtaining SPO2 levels in the blood. Using radar technology, Xandar Kardian can obtain reliable respiration rate with high accuracy due to the fact that it can ensure that the entire body is in “still motion mode” before obtaining chest + stomach movement. The core logic is identical to the gold standard in that it measures RR with chest motion (up & down).

Similarly, resting heart rate is defined by obtaining heart rate when the subject patient is standing, sitting or lying down still but not sleeping. Xandar Kardian, again, can ensure that the body is in still motion mode before measuring the micro-vibrational patterns being emitted from inside the body. Even with ECG, any type of motion causes “noises” that provides inaccurate readings. Wearable devices on the other hand cannot see or confirm if the entire body is still. Therefore, wearable devices may provide HR, but RHR data is questionable.


Accuracy range explained.

By regulation, ir-uwb radar signals can only go to a maximum of 10 meters (33ft). When it comes to vital sign monitoring, the closer the body is to the radar the higher the accuracy since the micro-vibration signals are stronger. Heart rate for example has highest accuracy within 3 meter range. It can, however, obtain RHR values as far as 8 meters away with reduced accuracy.

Early Deterioration Detection works with

Xandar Kardian.

Xandar Kardian’s solution obtains a baseline RR and RHR by continuously obtaining measurements over time. Shortness of breath is defined by RR of 20-25 or more. In fact, RR of 25-29 breaths per minute is associated with a mortality rate of 21% (Goldhill et al, 2005). Furthermore, RR is the main cause for ICU admission, accounting for 48% of all intensive care admissions (Mok et al, 2015).

A standard “threshold” levels are set to be triggered for EDD, including 20+ BPM. Customized thresholds are possible based on the physician’s discretion according to the patient’s pre-conditions. Once the thresholds are engaged, the system can alert the medical staff via integrated nurse call systems or cloud-based mobile APP + dashboard push alerts.

Respiratory Disorders

Respiration rate monitoring can predict deterioration accurately. COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the third most common cause of death in the US, costing $32B in 2010, according to the CDC. Early recognition and possible prevention of admission due to acute exacerbations of COPD can greatly reduce healthcare costs, morbidity and mortality. It’s important to note that patients with COPD requiring hospitalization have shown to exhibit an increase in respiration rate 5 days prior to admission. Analysis showed that a rise in RR may herald worsening respiratory status. Early identification can result in reduction of admission, mortality and overall healthcare costs.

Long-term RHR monitoring

Resting heart rate (RHR) — the number of times your heart beats per minute at rest — is a quick way to gauge how efficiently your heart is working.

Heart rate is important because the heart’s function is so important. The heart circulates oxygen and nutrient-rich blood throughout the body. When it’s not working properly, just about everything is affected. Heart rate is central to this process because the function of the heart (called “cardiac output”) is directly related to heart rate and stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped out with each beat). A normal heart rate is usually stated as 60 to 100 beats per minute. Slower than 60 is bradycardia (“slow heart”); faster than 100 is tachycardia (“fast heart”). But some experts believe that an ideal resting heart rate is closer to 50 to 70.

Why is long-term RHR monitoring important?

“Mid-life resting heart rate of 75+ beats/min linked to doubling in early death risk.”
A resting heart rate of 75 beats per minute in mid-life is linked to a doubling in the risk of an early death from all causes–at least among men–reveals research published in the online journal Open Heart.

And an increase in the rate for men in their 50s is associated with a heightened risk of heart disease over the next 11 years. Every additional beat increase in rate from their baseline was associated with a 3 per cent higher risk of death from any cause, a 1 per cent higher risk of cardiovascular disease, and a 2 per cent higher risk of coronary heart disease.

It’s important to note that these were long-term value changes over 90 days. Xandar Kardian’s @home RHR monitoring system is pending FDA-clearance 510(k).

Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in acute / hospital care

Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in acute / hospital care

  • “In between” spot checks: continuously monitor for early deterioration, especially in between 4-8 hour spot checks.
  • Early intervention
  • Reduction in rehospitalizations
  • Assist medical staff prioritize tasks during shifts
  • Reduce alarm fatigue
Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in long term care (nursing home)

Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in long term care (nursing home)

  • Satisfies “check in” process automatically by monitoring for presence and their vital signs.
  • Reduce redundant status checks during nighttime.
  • Option to offer real-time wellness monitoring to family members via mobile app.
  • Reduction in ICU hospitalization
  • Early detection of deterioration (prior to hospitalization)
Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in residential

Impact on continuous vital sign monitoring in residential

  • Early detection of respiratory or cardiovascular disease.
  • Long term monitoring of RHR for potential cardiovascular disease .
  • Evaluate impact on quality of life (via motion monitoring) based on type of medication consumed (in conjunction with smart pharma dispensers).
  • Data as a Service model reimbursable ($65 ~ $123 per patient per month by CMS) under CPT 99453, 99454, 99457, 99458 and 99091.

Awards we won

Related Patents & Journal Publications

Method for Maximize Reliability of Measured RHR/BR using Radar

IP Number: 10-1902760
Granted Date: 2018-09-20
International: USA (16/469,882)

Method for Measuring RHR/BR using Multiple Radars

IP Number: 10-1838704
Granted Date: 2018-03-08
International: USA (16/469,882)

Basic Method for Measuring RHR/BR using Radar

IP Number: 10-1777000
Granted Date: 2017-09-04
International: USA (14/748,061)

Non-Contact Health Monitoring Device(Design)

IP Number: 30-1029898
Granted Date: 2019-10-25
International: USA (29/697,348)

Preclinical Evaluation of a Noncontact Simultaneous Monitoring Method for Respiration and Carotid Pulsation Using Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband Radar

Scientific Reports, Nature,, 9:11892, pp.1-12, August 15, 2019.

Authors: J.Y. Park, Y.G. Lee, Y.W. Choi, R. Heo, H.K. Park, S.H. Cho, S.H. Cho, Y.H. Lim
Publication Date: 2019-08
Journal publication: Nature Scientific Report

Validation of noncontact cardiorespiratory monitoring using impulse-radio ultra-wideband radar against nocturnal polysomnography

Sleep and Breathing, Springer Nature Switzerland,, August 10, 2019.

Authors: S. Kang, Y.G. Lee, Y.H. Lim, H.K. Park, S.H. Cho, S.H. Cho
Publication Date: 2019-08
Journal publication: Springer Nature Switzerland

Non-contact respiration monitoring using impulse radio ultrawideband radar in neonates

Royal Society Open Science, The Royal Society, 6:190149, pp.1-11,, May 20, 2019.

Authors: J.D. Kim, W.H. Lee, Y.G. Lee, H.J. Lee, T.H. Cha, S.H. Kim, K.M. Song, Y.H. Lim, S.H. Cho, S.H. Cho, H.K. Park
Publication Date: 2019-06
Journal publication: The Royal society

A Novel Non-contact Heart Rate Monitor Using Impulse-Radio Ultra-Wideband (IR-UWB) Radar Technology

Scientific Reports, Nature, DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-31411-8, 8:13053, pp.1-10, August 29, 2018.

Authors: Y.G. Lee, J.Y. Park, Y.W. Choi, H.K. Park, S.H. Cho, S.H. Cho, Y.H. Lim
Publication Date: 2018-08
Journal publication: Nature Scientific Report

Vital Sign Monitoring and Mobile Phone Usage Detection Using IR-UWB Radar for Intended Use in Car Crash Prevention

Sensors, MDPI, DOI:10.3390/s17061240, Vol.17, Issue 1240, pp.1-25, May 30, 2017.

Authors: S.K. Leem, F. Khan, S.H. Cho
Publication Date: 2017-05
Journal publication: MDPI sensors

A Detailed Algorithm for Vital Sign Monitoring of a Stationary/Non-Stationary Human through IR-UWB Radar

Sensors, MDPI, DOI:10.3390/s17020290, Vol.17, Issue 290, pp.1-15, February 4, 2017.

Authors: F. Khan, S.H. Cho
Publication Date: 2017-02
Journal publication: MDPI sensors

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