What is sleep apnea?
Quick facts on OSA (Obstructive Sleep Apnea)
More than 18 million Americans suffer from OSA.
Risk includes lack of concentration (memory loss), irritability & depression. OSA can cause – high blood pressure, stroke (2x risk), heart disease, dementia, diabetes — all very serious health risks to avoid.
Disruptive Innovation in Sleep Apnea monitoring.
How Xandar Kardian monitors for AHI (sleep apnea).
Background info Sleep Apnea
There are three main types of sleep apnea: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA), Central sleep apnea and complex sleep apnea. OSA is the most common form and it occurs when throat muscles relax blocking the airway. During OSA, the brain is still sending signals to “Breathe”, which includes lung muscles from trying to fill up. However, air does not flow in. Central sleep apnea occurs when the brain does not send proper signals to the muscles that control breathing. In other words, there is no movement – including breathing movement from the body.
How it is done today
Traditional sleep apnea test conducted in a sleep lab has sensors to monitor chest movement, airflow info, SPO2 for blood oxygen levels and EEG sensors to obtain electrical activity in the brain. Home sleep test (HST) kits skips out on the EEG sensor as it is not necessary for general OSA monitoring.
How Xandar Kardian does it.
Xandar Kardian’s radar solutions utilizes patented algorithms to monitor for micro-vibrational patterns with focus on OSA. Unlike “wearables”, radar signals get information from the entire body. This means that we can ensure the body being completely still before looking for breathing signals. “Toss & turn” motions are recorded for general sleep wellness monitoring. When the body is still, breathing (respiration) signals are obtained from the chest/stomach area of the body as it moves up and down. What’s unique is that during OSA phase, the chest movement becomes “erratic”, as if something is forcing it to move up and down. The changes are extremely micro and can only be truly monitored via high resolution radar signal processing. When this occurs for at least 10 seconds, the system records it as “1 AHI”. AHI is the sum of the numbers of apneas (pauses in breathing) plus the hypopneas (periods of shallow breathing).
Less than 5 AHI is considered normal (no sleep apnea). 5-15 AHI is a mild sleep apnea. 15-30 AHI is moderate and over 30 AHI per 1 sleep test cycle is considered to be severe sleep apnea. Medical attention, including possible prescription of CPAP devices are needed if the patient has severe sleep apnea conditions. A recent journal publication with 96 OSA patients using Xandar Kardian Sleep Apnea monitoring system revealed that severe sleep apnea detection was achieved at 98% accuracy compared to medical polysomnography devices.
* Accuracy for severe OSA based on two journal publication (clinical trials)
* Xandar Kardian solutions are not affected by type of clothing, bed or blanket used.
Respiration Rate monitoring
Getting accurate respiration rate is one of the most critical data points needed for sleep apnea monitoring. This is why a “chest strap” is often used. Xandar Kardian obtains this information by looking for the chest (lung) + upper stomach motion with radar, which in essence is the same method as chest straps without the straps. Accuracy is literally almost 1 to 1.
SPO2 + Airflow monitoring
Sleep labs and HST systems utilizes various airflow nose inserts and finger (SPO2) wearable sensors for sleep monitoring. However, the ultimate purpose of this is to sense lack of airflow despite chest movement. Xandar Kardian on the other hand detects this by sensing micro-vibrational changes in the chest area when airflow is lacking.
With non-contact sleep apnea monitoring, long-term monitoring is possible rather than 2-3 day testing with HST or 1 day testing in a sleep lab which can cost upwards of $4,000 per session. Long-term and daily monitoring of sleep apnea can provide useful insights for the user as they will be able to monitor what activity, alcohol consumption levels, stress and diet affects their sleep apnea the most.
Based on 3 years of research, Xandar Kardian’s sleep monitoring solution was tested against medical PSG device (Philips Alice 5) for accuracy validation purposes on 96 OSA patients.
Currently in Development.
Xandar Kardian’s Sleep Apnea monitoring solution is currently undergoing clinical trials (FDA clearance purposes). Estimated Launch Date: Q1 2022
monitored to date.
hours of OSA
Related Patents & Journal Publications
Method for Measuring Sleep Efficiency using Radar
IP Number: 10-1883226
Granted Date: 2018-07-24
International: USA (16/473,768)
Non-contact diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea using impulse-radio ultra-wide band radar
Publisher Names: Sun Kang, Dong-Kyu Kim, Yonggu Lee, Young-Hyo Lim, Hyun-Kyung Park, Sung Ho Cho, Seok Hyun Cho
Published Date: 2020-03-25
Journal Publications: Scientific Reports