DMS + CPD
monitoring & detection system
Driver Monitoring System
- Continuously monitor RHR + RR levels of the driver.
- Designed to detect potential fatigue or stress levels of the driver
Child Presence System
- Monitor presence of front passenger + rear passengers via vital sign.
- No vehicle integration required.
Backseat presence security
- Monitors for potential security risk by detecting presence in the rear seats while car is in locked mode.
Driver Monitoring System - EuroNCAP Mandate & NTSB recommendation
Drowsiness and fatigue in drivers are major causes of road accidents. According to research, more than 20% of the crashes reported in 2010 were caused due to drowsiness or fatigue of drivers. Also, it was found that more than 10% of the rear-end vehicle collisions were caused due to fatigue-related problems.*
EURONCAP, European body responsible for vehicle safety ratings and testing) identified DMS as a primary safety feature for all new vehicles by 2020. In the US, NTSB has also recommended advanced DMS to be used with semi-autonomous vehicles. NTSB also published its investigation report on a fatal accident involving a leading semi-autonomous vehicle with “Autopilot” mode engaged, which concluded that overreliance on the feature and prolonged driver disengagement from the driving task contributed to the accident. Several specific safety recommendations were issued in NTSB’s report1, for design of semi-autonomous vehicles, including the adoption of more effective monitoring of driver attention, commensurate with the capability level of the automated driving system. This included a specific safety recommendation to manufacturers of Level 2 capable vehicles to: “Develop applications to more effectively sense the driver’s level of engagement and alert the driver when engagement is lacking while automated vehicle control systems are in use.
* NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD Collision Between a Car Operating with Automated Vehicle Control Systems and a Tractor-Semitrailer Truck Near Williston, Florida, May 7, 2016
Various types of cameras have been in use for DMS purposes for almost two decades. It's mainly designed to look for signs of fatigue or distraction by analyzing the eye movement. As with all computer vision technology it requires the ability to "see" (lighting) and GPU for processing the images.
BCG, Radars, non-contact EKG sensors are all various types of available non-contact vital sign monitoring sensors available for DMS. It's main function is to monitor RHR/RR or HRV data to see deterioration signs (slowing of 5-10 BPM) to determine fatigue driving.
LDW systems uses a camera to monitor lane markings and detect when a vehicle is drifting out of its lane of traffic. Distration and fatigue driving is "assumed" if drifting occurs too frequently over time, but this can also cause irritable false trigger alerts for the drivers.
BCG, FMCW Radar,
Non-contact EKG, Sub Terahertz Radar
Ballistocardiography is a measure of ballistic forces generated by the heart. Essentially it is measurement of vital sign via micro-pressure given from breathing and heart movement. This requires direct contact to the body and the sensor – chair.
mmWave, 60-77 Ghz frequency modulated continuous wave radar technology is able to get vital signs at close range. However, it cannot sense well beyond seats.
Wirelessly receiving electrical activity through materials. This requires relative close contact with the body as well.
Sub Terahertz Radar
150+ Ghz. High accuracy, but requires close contact.
There are many ways of conducting DMS through non-contact vital sign sensors, but overall, BCG’s sensor may deteriorate over time from various pressure wear & tear and FMCW, non-contact EKG as well as sub-terahertz radars require a sensor “per seat” while also having reliability concerns based on the type of clothing the driver is wearing. Tests based on drivers wearing a single-layer T-shirt or dress shirt is one thing, but in real-life scenarios, drivers may wear thick materials such as leather jackets, parka, 3M reflective materials and static generating wool fabrics. Further tests are needed to ensure reliability of the measurements on top of accuracy from control-based labs.
* Main difference to Xandar Kardian’s DMS + CPD solution is that other non-contact sensors require “one sensor per seat” installation while XK just needs one sensor per vehicle. Xandar Kardian can also provide both DMS and CPD with one sensor.
All in one solution.
Xandar Kardian is the most cost-effective, reliable solution for DMS and CPD.
Xandar Kardian DMS
Xandar Kardian’s solution is simple yet intuitive. When the car is in motion, it senses increased “road vibration” and automatically loads up its DMS logic where by it is only monitoring the RHR and RR data from the driver. Utilizing patented 9 year research based algorithms, test results comparing measurement from holter-EKG devices showed 95% accuracy while in motion.
Link to DMS demo video
Xandar Kardian CPD
When the car comes to a complete stop, it would sense the lack of road vibration and automatically change to CPD mode if CPD is engaged. The system first looks for vital sign signatures from the front two passengers. This is because the driver may have simply parked the vehicle temporarily (ie: purchase milk from a convenience store) while another passenger (ie: mom) is still occuping the front passenger seat. However, if the system does not detect and vital sign from the two passenger seats but detect vital signs from the 2nd or 3rd row of the vehicle, it will monitor and confirm for 15 seconds before sending out an alert.
This method is patented by Xandar Kardian, and it allows for a robust, intuitive CPD system without having to integrate the sensor to onboard computers or seat-based sensors. This reduces costs as well as provide better reliability over longer period of time.
Link to CPD demo video
Benefits / Advantages
1. Utilizing IR-UWB Radar technology, Xandar Kardian’s solution is not affected by the type of clothing or thickness of clothing worn by the driver or passengers. So long as they are not wearing metallic star trooper customs! This ensures that the measurements that Xandar Kardian obtains is RELIABLE on top of being accurate.
2. All in one solution means one sensor can do both DMS and CPD. 1 x sensor cost vs. 2, 5, 7 sensors (based on number of seats).
3. One sensor application can also mean 1 x installation + integration costs. Having sensors that require multiple “seat sensors” increases the installation and integration costs alongside the sensor costs.
4. Works on all vehicles, regardless of contents of the seats or position of the passengers. There is no need for having various versions of the sensor.
5. As it does not require “information” from the vehicle to function, this method is perfect for potential aftermarket add-ons or post-purcahse options. System can be added as an option easily (just requires dedicated power source).
CPD / DMS
|Camera||BCG||Non-contact EKG||FMCW Radar||Sub-terahertz Radar||Radar Imaging||Xandar Kardian|
|No impact from lighting conditions||No (affected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)|
|No impact from driver/passengers clothing or eyewear||No (certain type of glasses)||No (certain type of clothing)||No (certain type of clothing)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)||Yes (unaffected)|
|Sensing distance||1M||<1cm (body must touch sensor)||<1cm (body must touch sensor)||<10 meters||<30cm||2 meters||<6 meters|
|# of sensors required for CPD in 7 seat SUV||No CPD||7||7||2+
(due to decreased ability to sense through seats)
|Vital Sign monitored||None||RHR + RR||ECG (RHR + HRV)||RHR + RR||RHR + RR + HRV||RR||RHR + RR (HRV currently in POC stage)|
|Accuracy||N/A||+/- 10%||Very High||Moderate||Very High||Low||High (+/- 8%)|
|Cost for DMS||High||High||N/A||Moderate||Low||High||Moderate/High|
|Cost for CPD (7 seater based)||N/A||Very High (7 sensor + installation + integration)||Very High (7 sensor + installation + integration)||High||Very High (7 sensor + installation + integration)||Low||Low|
|Sensor Accuracy Deterioration (over time)||None||High||Medium||None||None||None||None|